API 9A pdf download.Steel wire ropes for the petroleum and natural gas industries — Minimum requirements and terms of acceptance
This International Standard specifies the minimum requirements and terms of acceptance for the manufacture and testing of steel wire ropes not exceeding rope grade 2160 for the petroleum and natural gas industries. Typical applications include tubing lines, rod hanger lines, sand lines, cable-tool drilling and clean out lines, cable tool casing lines, rotary drilling lines, winch lines, horse head pumping unit lines, torpedo lines, mast-raising lines, guideline tensioner lines, riser tensioner lines, mooring and anchor lines. Ropes for lifting slings and cranes, and wire for well-measuring and strand for well-servicing, are also included. The minimum breaking forces for the more common sizes, grades and constructions of stranded rope are given in tables. However, this International Standard does not restrict itself to the classes covered by those tables. Other types, such as ropes with compacted strands and compacted (swaged) ropes, may also conform with its requirements. The minimum breaking force values for these ropes are provided by the manufacturer. For information only, other tables present the minimum breaking forces for large diameter stranded and spiral ropes (i.e. spiral strand and locked coil), while approximate nominal length masses for the more common stranded rope constructions and large diameter stranded and spiral ropes are also given.
4.1 Material 4.1.1 Wire The wires for stranded ropes and well-servicing strand of carbon steel shall, before rope fabrication, conform to the diameter, tensile, torsion and, when applicable, zinc-coating requirements specified in Annex A. The methods of test for wires of tensile strength grades 1 370 N/mm 2 , 1 570 N/mm 2 , 1 770 N/mm 2 , 1 960 N/mm 2 and 2 160 N/mm 2 shall be in accordance with those given in ISO 2232. The methods of test for wires of tensile strength grades Levels 2, 3, 4 and 5 shall be in accordance with Annex B. For those ropes where a rope grade is applicable, the tensile strength grade of the wires shall be subject to the limits given in Table 1. NOTE The minimum breaking force values of those ropes of grades 1770, 1960 and 2160 as covered by the tables are calculated on the basis of rope grade and not individual wire tensile strength grades or levels.For those ropes (e.g. larger diameter ropes) where a rope grade is not applicable, the tensile strength grades of the wires shall be one, or a combination, of those given in Annex A. All wires of the same nominal diameter in the same wire layer shall be of the same tensile strength grade. Well-measuring wire and wires used in the manufacture of well-servicing strand shall normally be of carbon steel but other materials (e.g. stainless steel) may be used. The purchaser should specify any particular material requirements. 4.1.2 Core Cores of stranded ropes shall normally be of steel or fibre, although other types, such as composites (e.g. steel plus fibres or plastics) or cores made of solid polymer, may also be supplied. The purchaser should specify the type of core.The fibre cores for single-layer stranded ropes larger than 8 mm diameter shall be doubly closed (i.e. from yarn into strand and from strand into rope). Natural fibre cores shall be treated with an impregnating compound to inhibit rotting and decay. Steel cores shall be either an independent wire rope (IWRC) or wire strand (WSC). Steel cores of single-layer stranded ropes larger than 12 mm diameter shall be an independent wire rope (IWRC), unless specified otherwise. 4.1.3 Lubricant Lubricants shall conform to ISO 4346. 4.2 Rope manufacture 4.2.1 General In stranded ropes, all the wire layers in a strand shall have the same direction of lay. The lay lengths of corresponding wire layers in strands of the same size, construction and strand layer shall be uniform. The core of a stranded rope, except for compacted (swaged) ropes, shall be designed (steel) or selected (fibre) so that in a new rope under no load there is clearance between outer strands. The rope ends shall be secured such that they are prevented from unlaying 4.2.2 Wire joints Diameters shall be continuous, but, for wires other than well-measuring wires, if joints are necessary in wires over 0,4 mm they shall have their ends joined by brazing or welding. For stranded ropes, the minimum distance between joints within one strand shall be 18 × rope diameter (d). For spiral ropes, the minimum distance between joints in any wire layer shall be 36 × diameter of the wire layer. Wires up to and including 0,4 mm may be joined by twisting or by ends being simply inserted into the strands’ formation.