API 2001 pdf download.Fire Protection in Refneries
1 Purpose and Scope
1.1 Purpose The purpose of this recommended practice is to provide a better understanding of refnery fre protection and the steps needed to promote the safe storage, handling, and processing of petroleum and petroleum products in refneries. A basic premise of this standard is that fre prevention provides the fundamental foundation for fre protection. 1.2 Scope This document covers basic concepts of refnery fre prevention and protection. It reviews the chemistry and physics of refnery fres; discusses how the design of refnery systems and infrastructure impact the probability and consequences of potential fres; describes fre control and extinguishing systems typically used in refneries; examines fre protection concepts that should be covered in operating and maintenance practices and procedures; and provides information on organization of and training for refnery emergency responders. Many of the concepts, systems, and equipment discussed in this document are covered in detail in referenced publications, standards, or governmental requirements. 1.3 Concept of Hazard vs Risk Hazards are situations or properties of materials with the inherent ability to cause harm. Flammability, toxicity, corrosivity, and stored electrical, chemical, or mechanical energy all are hazards associated with various industrial materials or situations. Risk requires exposure. A hot surface or material can cause thermal skin burns or a corrosive acid can cause chemical skin burns, but these can occur only if there is contact exposure to skin.A person working at an elevated height has “stored energy” and a fall from a height can cause injury—but there is no risk unless a person is indeed working at heights and thus exposed to the hazard. There is no risk when there is no potential for exposure. Determining the level of risk for any activity involves understanding and recognizing hazards, then estimating the probability and severity of exposure events that could lead to harm or damage, and the resulting consequences. Principles relating hazards to the risk for people are valid for evaluating property or environmental risk. For instance, hydrocarbon vapors in a fammable mixture with air can ignite if exposed to a source of ignition resulting in a fre that could cause property damage as well as injure people. Hydrocarbons that will burn are hazardous materials—but one element of risk includes a fammable fuel-air mixture being exposed to an ignition source.
3 Terms, Defnitions, Abbreviations, and Acronyms
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and defnitions apply. Additional defnitions and an expanded discussion of fre-related hydrocarbon properties and phenomena are included in Section 4 and Annex A. 3.1 Terms and Defnitions 3.1.1 clean agent Electrically nonconducting volatile or gaseous fre suppression agent approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as substitutes for chemicals judged by EPA to be ozone depleting and are being phased out under provisions of the Clean Air Act (CAA); clean agents do not leave a residue upon evaporation. 3.1.2 combustible As defned by NFPA and used in this document, refers to any solid that can burn or to any liquid that has a fash point of 100 °F (37.8 °C) or greater. See NFPA 30 for subclassifcation of combustible liquids. 3.1.3 combustion (burning) The rapid reaction of oxidizable material with an oxidizer, usually oxygen from the air, followed by the development of heat. This reaction usually produces fames. 3.1.4 dry chemical agent A powder of very small particles (usually sodium bicarbonate, potassium bicarbonate, or ammonium phosphate) treated for proper fow capabilities and tailored for class A (combustible), class B (fammable), or class C (electrical) fres (see NFPA 10 for specifcs). 3.1.5 fre hazard analysis FHA A study used to evaluate fre hazards in a specifc potential fre area and evaluate consequences of fre-related events.